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Create account Log in Personal tools Contents (Top) Electron properties Formal quantum mechanical definition Types of orbital History Early models Bohr atom Modern conceptions and connections to the Heisenberg uncertainty principle Orbital names Orbital notation and subshells X-ray notation Hydrogen-like orbitals Quantum numbers Complex orbitals Real orbitals Shapes of orbitals Orbitals table Qualitative understanding of shapes Orbital energy Electron placement and the periodic table Relativistic effects pp hybridization (conjectured) Transitions between orbitals See also Notes References External links Atomic orbital Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia "Orbital shell" redirects here. For the collection of spaceflight orbits, see Orbital shell (spaceflight). The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals are: 1s, 2s, 2px, 2py, and 2pz. The two colors show the phase or sign of the wave function in each region. Each picture is domain coloring of a ψ(x, y, z) function which depend on the coordinates of one electron. To see the elongated shape of ψ(x, y, z)2 functions that show probability density more directly, see pictures of d-orbitals below. In atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a function describing the location and wave-like behavior of an electron in an atom. This function can be used to calculate the probability of finding any electron of an atom in any specific region around the atom's nucleus. The term atomic orbital may also refer to the physical region or space where the electron can be calculated to be present, as predicted by the particular mathematical form of the orbital. Each orbital in an atom is characterized by a set of values of the three quantum numbers n, ?, and ml, which respectively correspond to the electron's energy, angular momentum, and an angular momentum vector component (magnetic quantum number). Alternative to the magnetic quantum number, the orbitals are often labeled by the associated harmonic polynomials (e.g., xy, x2 − y2). Each such orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two electrons, each with its own projection of spin m s m_{s}. The simple names s orbital, p orbital, d orbital, and f orbital refer to orbitals with angular momentum quantum number ? = 0, 1, 2, and 3 respectively. These names, together with the value of n, are used to describe the electron configurations of atoms. They are derived from the description by early spectroscopists of certain series of alkali metal spectroscopic lines as sharp, principal, diffuse, and fundamental. Orbitals for ? > 3 continue alphabetically (g, h, i, k, ...), omitting j because some languages do not distinguish between the letters "i" and "j".

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